Thursday, February 28, 2013

Political dynamics of colonization in West Papua

WEST PAPUA     8:02 PM   No comments

By: Rinto Kogoya

"That in fact freedom is the right of every nation and therefore, the occupation over the world should be abolished because it is not in accordance with humanitarian and perikeadilan." (First paragraph of the Preamble to the Constitution (Constitution) of 1945, the Republic of Indonesia)

Papuan demands for independence and secession from the Republic of Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia) and the sphere of interest first world countries are now being echoed throughout the region of West Papua. Having previously done guerrilla demands and diplomacy abroad (international), since the passing of reform in Indonesia (1998) claim was made in public, especially in Indonesia without leaving any demands by guerrillas.

While demand was rolling, Indonesia's real political control of West Papua and the world's first real economic control of West Papua "stubborn" for not listening to the demands of the people of Papua. Demands secession Papuat people regarded as an illegal attempt (against legal or illegal) so that the people of West Papua are given some silly cap separatist rebellion, anti-development, imbeciles, and other rebels. All stamp is a "license" that an official for Indonesia and the world's first permanent implant through the practice of colonial hegemony, such as providing "packages" Special Autonomy, Expansion Region (Province / District), murder, rape, responsiveness and arbitrary imprisonment in outside the law, torture and several other types of crimes.

However, the Papuan people who cling to her political beliefs did not give up. Instead the "fire fight" waged incessant insurgency to continue with the main demand "Must Papua Merdeka". Demands can be seen from several events, everywhere and in all walks of life through a variety of actions launched by the demands of a clear and unequivocal about to separate from Indonesia. The struggle was not only done in the country, even abroad struggle for West Papuan independence emerging conducted by diplomats West Papua are supported by a variety of Support Groups of West Papua Independence. Also not only Papuans who seek independence of West Papua, but also championed by non-Papuans in Indonesia and abroad.

The question is why the Papuans "stubborn" to seek independence? Why Indonesia and first world countries too "stubborn" to keep the territory of West Papua as part of the Homeland? Surely a reason and root of the problem. To see the reasons and root causes, the history of West Papua should be described and understood correctly, then the solution must be sought or attempted to be done by the struggle of the people of Papua and supporters, of course, in which the various layers of the Papuan people. It will answer the question. why the Papuans demanded independence?
To find the "root cause" of West Papuan true, then the writer's try to describe briefly the history of the West Papuan independence and political dynamics of the conquest of the West Papuan.

It is inevitable that the annexation of West Papua by Indonesia as part of the country is based on historical reasons. While annexation action itself has now become a history that must be studied and understood in order to map the problem objectively, followed by a search action the best solution for resolving political disputes in the West Papuan Indonesian rule.

In order to explore the history of relations between Indonesia and West Papua, the authors tried to point out a few things. First: the life history of Indonesia and West Papua, second, the history of the struggle of West Papua in Indonesia and repel invaders, these three; history of West Papuan independence, fourth; reason annexation of West Papua by Indonesia, the fifth, the process of the Act illegal (Act of) 1969, and sixth; nation of West Papua in Indonesia's New Order state and the West Papuan National Awakening.

First: the life history of Indonesia and West Papua. In the history of life, the people of West Papua have shown that they are able to manage his own life. This is evident from the leadership of each tribe, who have inhabited the West Papua for more than 50,000 years ago, led by tribal chiefs (tribal leaders). For some areas, any democratically elected chiefs while in some other area chiefs appointed hereditary. Up to now there are still traditional governance arrangements in some areas, for example: a Ondofolo still have some power in the Sentani and Ondoafi still respected by people around Yotefa in Numbay (Ottis Simopiaref, Fundamentals of Independence of West Papua, a summary of the book Karkara) .

In addition to the ability to regulate themselves (not influenced by foreigners), is also evident in the eyes of that between West Papua and Indonesia have differed very much. Papuan is Melanesian race while Indonesian people in general are Mongoloid race. With racial differences make a difference in others, whether physical or mental differences, and the two peoples did not have any relationship ever in the history of life in the past. Each life as his own nation with different characteristics as well.

From the description above, it is clear that between Indonesia and West Papua did not have the same life history relationship that unites the two nations within one nation called Indonesia. The reason that Indonesia and West Papua have a history of living together as a nation in the history is not objective at all, rather a political reason for the claim of West Papua as part of Indonesia. This sort of thing often built in Indonesia to build Indonesia's Papuan nationalism (James F. Dumupa, Hunting Justice in Papua: Revealing the Sins of Indonesia in West Papua Media Pillar, Yogyakarta, 2006. Thing. 263-281).

Second, the history of the struggle of West Papua in Indonesia and repel invaders. Indonesia (Sabang to Amboina) was colonized by the Dutch for 350 years (350 years the Dutch colonized the island of Java, which is then generalized to colonize other areas mentioned in the Dutch East Indies), while West Papua (Nederland Nieuw-Guinea) was colonized by the Dutch for 64 years. Although West Papua and Indonesia are both Dutch colony, but the administration of West Papua administered separately (A. Agus Alua, Papuan Congress 2000 May 21-June 4 "Let's Straighten History of West Papua", the Secretariat of the Papuan Presidium Council and Research Bureau STFP Eastern Dawn, 2002. thing. 67). Indonesia was colonized by the Dutch colonial power controlled from Batavia (now Jakarta), is the power that has been running Batavia Dutch rule over Indonesia, from Sabang to Amboina. Dutch rule in West Papua controlled from Hollandia (now Port Numbay), with a limit of power ranging from Raja Ampat to Merauke.

In 1908 Indonesia entered the stage of the National Awakening (fight brain) were characterized by the establishment of various organizations of struggle. In this new round of struggle for many economic-political organization established in Indonesia, for example Boedi Utomo (May 20, 1908), States of Islam (1911), Indische Partij (1912), the Communist Party of Indonesia (1913), Association of Indonesia (1908), Studie Club (1924) and others. The scene of the struggle, especially in the establishment of organizations of struggle, the people of West Papua is not involved or engaged. This is because the enemies encountered at that time, the Netherlands is the enemy of the Indonesian people themselves, not the enemy along with the people of West Papua. West Papuan People assume that they did not have a common enemy to the people of Indonesia, because the Dutch are their enemies.

West Papuans do not take part in the Indonesian Youth Pledge on October 28, 1928. In many youth Youth Pledge in Indonesia such as Sumatra Bond Jong, Jong Java, Jong Celebes, Amboina Jong, and others present to express determination as one nation, one language, and one homeland. But never one pub lads from West Papua who attended the Youth Oath is. Therefore, the people of West Papua have never acknowledged one nation, one language, and one homeland whose name "Indonesia".

In the struggle approached moments of Indonesian Independence Proclamation, no West Papuans involved or expressed attitudes to prepare for the independence of Indonesia which was proclaimed August 17, 1945. About not have anything to do in the independence of West Papua Indonesia Mohammad Hatta declared by a meeting between representatives of Indonesia and the Japanese authorities in Saigon Vietnam, dated 12Agustus 1945. At that time, Mohammad Hatta asserts that "... the nation of Papua is negroid race, nation Melanesia, Papua, then let people determine their own fate ...". While Sukarno argued that the Papuans are primitive so it does not need to be associated with the independence of Indonesia. The same thing ever made in one trial Hatta BPUPKI July 1945.

When Indonesia was proclaimed, in the area of ​​Indonesia is Indonesia's proclamation in the Dutch East Indies, which is "From Sabang To Amboina", excluding power Nederland Nieuw-Guinea (West Papua). Therefore Indonesia is a founding statement Indonesian state power limit from Sabang to Amboina territory without West Papua.

Dated August 19, 1945 (two days after the independence of Indonesia) Indonesia is divided into eight provinces. One is the Maluku province. Many people assume that the area included in the territory of West Papua province of Maluku. Though in real control of West Papua province of Maluku in power was conceived and realized since the establishment of a Bureau of Guinea on December 14, 1953 on the charge of carrying out research on the area of ​​Indonesia which could serve as a bridge to the West Irian from the Dutch. From the research, it turns out the choice fell on the North Maluku. So with the birth of Law. 15 Year 1956 on the establishment of West Irian, Soasiu established as the capital of the province of West Irian Governor Zainal Abidin Shah (Sultan of Tidore) which was established in August 17, 1956 in conjunction with the inauguration of West Irian struggle.

After all the struggle of each party have been deadlocked, then the next region of West Papua into disputed areas contested by the Netherlands and Indonesia. Indonesia and the Netherlands both have great political ambitions in the capture of West Papua.

Third, the history of the West Papuan independence. When West Papua remains a disputed area due to the region's struggle between Indonesia and the Netherlands, the West Papuan demands for independence as independent states existed long before the independence of Indonesia August 17, 1945 (The growing understanding "Papuan Nationalism" in West Papua has a long and bitter history . before and during World War II in the Pacific, nationalism is typically expressed through movement Millinerian, Messianic and "Cargo-Cultis). Entering the 1960's the politicians and statesmen of West Papua were educated by the school police and a school Municipal in Dutch called Bestuurschool (The founder of this school, the JP he was fully by many Papuans dubbed as "Vader der Papoea s) in Jayapura (Hollandia) , to educate 400 people between the years of 1944-1949 preparing for West Papuan independence.

Furthermore, at the insistence of politicians and statesmen of West Papua are educated, the Dutch government established Nieuw Guinea Raad (Council of New Guinea). Some educated figures included in this Council is MW Kaisiepo and Mofu (Islands Chouten / Cenderawasih), Nicolaus Youwe (Hollandia), P. Torey (Ransiki / Manokwari), A.K. Gebze (Merauke), M.B. Ramandey (Waropen), U.S. Onim (Teminabuan), N. Tanggahma (Fakfak), F. Poana (Mimika), Abdullah Arfan (Raja Ampat). Then the representatives of the Indo-Dutch descent is O de Rijke (representing Hollandia) and HFW Gosewisch of Manokwari (Yorrys Th. Raweyai, Why Papua Wants Freedom, the Papuan Presidium Council, Jayapura, 2002. Thing. 16). After making various preparations accompanied by rapid political change due to tension Indonesia and the Netherlands, the national committee was formed consisting of 21 people to assist the Board of New Guinea, in preparation for West Papuan independence. The committee eventually equipped with 70 Papuans were educated and successful delivery Political Manifesto which read: one, determine the name of the State; West Papua. Two, to determine the national anthem; Hai Papua my land. Three, specify the flag State; Morning Star. And four, to determine that the Morning Star flag be flown on 1 November 1961. As well as the symbol of the state of West Papua is Mambruk Bird with the slogan "One People One Soul".

Plan for raising the Morning Star flag on 1 November 1961 not run because it has not received approval from the Government of the Netherlands. But after the approval of the National Committee, the Morning Star flag was raised on December 1, 1961 at Hollandia, as well as the "Declaration of Independence of West Papua". Morning Star flag was raised alongside the Dutch flag and the anthem "O my land of Papua" anthem sung after the Dutch "Wilhelmus". West Papua's independence declaration was broadcast by Radio Netherlands and Australia. Moment is the Declaration of Independence of West Papua de facto as an independent and sovereign state.

Fourth, the reason the annexation of West Papua by Indonesia. Although West Papua declared itself as an independent and sovereign state, but independence was only 18 days old, because on December 19, 1961 President Sukarno issued a Tri Komando Rakyat (TRIKORA) in the North Square of Yogyakarta which read: first, thwarted the establishment of "State Papua doll "made in Dutch Colonial, the second, the Red and White kibarkan in West Irian country Indonesia, and third, be prepared for a general mobilization to defend the independence and unity of the country and nation.

Realization of the contents of this Trikora, then President Sukarno as Commander of West Irian Liberation Supreme Command issued Presidential Decree. 1 of 1962 which ordered the Mandala Command Commander, Major General Suharto to conduct a military operation to seize the territory of West Irian from the Dutch territory.

Finally made some waves of military operations in West Papua with a military unit deployed to the operation phase by air infiltration as Operation Bantam Kedaton, Operation Garuda, Operation Wolf, Operation Kancil, Operation Dragon, Operation Eagles, Operation Granary, Operation Jatayu. Operations by sea was Operation Show of Rorce, Operation Chakras, and Operation dolphins. While in the exploitation phase of the operation performed Jayawijaya and Special Operations (Opsus). Through this operation occupied West Papua, and suspected by many Papuans who had been massacred at the time.

Why Soekarno very "stubborn" in seizing the territory of West Papua to insert it into the territory of the Republic of Indonesia? Sukarno had four main reasons in the annexation of West Papua to Indonesia. The fourth reason is the claim held by Indonesia as an act of justification control over West Papua. The fourth claim is: one, West Papua is considered as part of the kingdom of Majapahit. Two, Raja Ampat archipelago in the bird's head, West Papua, the sultan of Tidore and Sukarno claimed to be part of the Sultanate of Tidore. Sultanate Tidore claimed by Sukarno as part of an "Eastern Indonesia". Three, claimed West Papua as part of the former Dutch East Indies. And four, Sukarno wanted to dispel the influence of anti-western imperialism in Southeast Asia. In addition, Sukarno had hegemonic ambitions to restore the glory of the kingdom of Majapahit (remember: "Crush Malaysia"), including West Papua when it was colonized by the Dutch. It may also have a feeling suspicious of Sukarno, the government Nederlands Nieuw Guinea in West Papua will be Dutch fort at any time to destroy the State of Indonesia. It is connected with the second Dutch military action (Tweede politionele aktie) on 19-12-1948 to destroy the state of RI.

Fifth, the Act of illegal (Act of) 1969. The signing of the New York Agreement (Agreement New York) between Indonesia and the Netherlands which was witnessed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, U Thant and U.S. Ambassador to the UN, Ellsworht Bunker on 15 August 1962. The essence of this agreement is the implementation of free choice act (Act of Free Chice) International mechanisms through the provision of one person one vote (One Man, One Vote).

At this time there is a discrepancy which in 1967 Freeport-McMoRan (a U.S. company) signed a Contract of Work with the government of Indonesia under the Soeharto regime to open a copper and gold mine in the Central Highlands of West Papua. Freeport started operations in 1971. Employment Contracts both signed on December 30, 1991. U.S. interests in West Papua, which is marked by the signing of the Contract of Work between Freeport and the government of the Republic of Indonesia, became reality. This was two years before the Act of 1969 held in West Papua. Here the juridical irregularities occurred, as West Papua from 1962 to 1969 can be categorized as an area of ​​dispute.

Clearly, then, the Act made in 1969 will be won by Indonesia. PEPERA implemented with a "deliberation and consensus" (a system of decision-making in Indonesia) as opposed to the letter and spirit New York Agreement, in which 809,337 people of Papua at the time who had the right to vote were represented by 1025 people included in the Council of Deliberation (Demus ) which have previously been indoctrinated to choose Indonesia. Ironically, of 1,025 people, only 175 people who give opinions. In addition, the Act of 1969 carried out by terror, intimidation, arrest, and murder (violation of law, human rights and democracy). PEPERA victory in disability law and morals is finally passed by the United Nations passed Resolution No. 2509 and ratified by the Government of Indonesia through Presidential Decree No. 7 of 1971.

Sixth; nation of West Papua in Indonesia's New Order state and the West Papuan National Awakening. In the reign of Suharto's New Order regime many historic events that made people of Papua to fight for separation from Indonesia, especially post-implementation of the Act (Act of) 1969, but in general the writer will only bring up events that have important historical value.

First, the Proclamation of July 1, 1971. After West Papua unilaterally inserted through the manipulation of the Act by Indonesia in 1969, the area was occupied like a colony. Indonesia began to tighten this area to turn the West Papuan independence movement waged by Papuans through diplomacy and the guerrilla struggle. On July 1, 1971 somewhere in the village of Waris, Jayapura district, near the border with Papua New Guinea, nicknamed (Headquarters) Victoria, which was later dubbed in the vocabulary of the people of West Papua as "Mavik" "West Papua Independence implemented. The proclamation was coined by Seth Jafet Rumkorem as President of West Papua, and was accompanied by Jakob Prai as Chairman of the Senate (House of Representatives), Maury Dorinus as Health Minister, Philemon Tablamilena Jarisetou Jufuway as Chief of Staff of the National Liberation Army (TEPENAL), and Louis Wajoi as Commander (Commander) TEPENAL Republic of West Papua (now West Papua National Liberation Army / TPN PB).

Secondly, the Declaration of the State of West Melanesia. Three years after the proclamation of the "Headquarters Victoria", the imagination was widened to include the neighboring region, Papua New Guinea. On December 3, 1974, six people in the city civil Serui, Yapen capital-Waropen, signed what they called the "People's Yapen-Waropen Statement", which it wants unity of the nation of Papua Samarai (at the tail end of the mainland of Papua New Guinea) up to Sorong, the "100% independent outside of the Republic of Indonesia".

Since February 1975, five of the petitioners were detained in Jayapura. You see, one of the signatories "Slide-Samarai proclamation" was, Y. Ch. Merino, Biak people who previously was head of the Office of the State Treasurer in Serui, on February 14, 1975 caught "suicide" in Serui. Reportedly found in a search of his home state cash of Rp 13 million. After two years of being held in Jayapura, five friends who are still alive, brought to court Jayapura. On March 9, 1977, the fifth was sentenced to eight years in prison on charges of "treason".

Third, the killing of Papuan cultural nationalists; Arnold Clemens Ap. On 26 April 1984, the Indonesian government to do "something" which is precisely the Papuan national awareness of creating a martyr whose memory (for a while) to unite various Papuan resistance groups fighting each other. On that date a prominent cultural figure of West Papua who also is the head of the music Mambesak, Clemens Arnold Ap, shot by Koppasanda (now Kopassus) Six sand beach, east of the city of Port Numbay.

Fourth, the Proclamation of West Melanesia. On December 14, 1988, Dr. Thomas Wapai Wanggai proclaimed State of West Melanesia. He carries the name of the State of West Melanesia to give West Papua from Indonesian rule. He Declares Independence by raising the flag of West Melanesia Fourteen Stars (B-14) in the Field Mandala Port Numbay 1988. As a result, he was imprisoned in Cipinang Jakarta, but he passed away in 1996 due to illness when undergoing his sentence. Suspected death from poisoning. Finally, many of his followers, which until now fled abroad.

Thomas Wapai Wanggai idea of ​​the State of West Melanesia is not clear about boundaries "West Melanesia" it. Is West Melanesia also covers Maluku, East Timor, and West Timor, whose population is allied Melanesia? Or the use of the term was merely a political tactic, an appeal to the Melanesian Solidarity issues are popular in some South Pacific countries. Clearly, the proclamation Tom Wanggai has great appeal to most residents of the city of Jayapura and cities satellites.

In addition to historical events that have been mentioned above, there are also the actions of both routine diplomatic struggle or guerrilla warfare conducted by the people of West Papua. In diplomatic instance occurred lobby and opening OPM representative offices in various countries, such as in Sweden (1972), Senegal (1976), and campaigns conducted in the Netherlands, Greece, Japan, PNG and other countries. While the guerrilla attacks such as occurred on Post Military (TNI / Police) by TPN-OPM, there hostage, and the other along State power Indonesia's New Order era in West Papua.

In return Indonesia through military force through policy implementation Military Operations Area (DOM) terror, intimidari, persecution, imprisonment, rape, murder, arson and rural public facilities, and other military crimes. Moreover conducted Operation Koteka in the 1970's, which people are forced to wear an Indonesian style made of cloth.

As a result of military operations many West Papuans who have been victimized. It can be seen from the Amnesty International report noted that there had been 100 thousand West Papuans killed by Indonesian military. Besides Yale University issued a formal report that there has been genocide in West Papua by the Indonesian government and military titled "Indonesia Human Rights Abuse in West Papua: Application of the Law of Genocide to the History of Indonesian Control." Besides Yale University, John Wing and Peter King from the Center for Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Sydney Australia also has published a research report as a result of genocide in West Papua, entitled "Genocide in West Papua? The Role of Indonesian State Apparatus and a Current Needs Assessment of the Papuan People "(James F. Dumupa, Asylum Politics: War Diplomacy Indonesia versus West Papua and West Papua's Struggle for Independence, 2010).

West Papuan national awakening (the Reform Era Indonesia) along with the collapse of the "king" of Suharto from his power chair since 1998, and today also we are in a period of reform in Indonesia. The birth of the Reformation gave "fresh air" for the people of West Papua to fight for their rights openly restraint while on the other hand committed against resistance movements notably Papua region often be found in many forms. However, what is happening today in Papua will be a very important lesson from the history of the People of Papua in shaping their own history. "The people, and only people-lah, is a driving force in shaping human history." (Mao Tsetung). So ... greetings closely!

The author is Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Alliance of Papuan Students (KPP AMP)

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